Suggests that planning efforts begin not with mission statements but with key performance indicators, or KPIs, which are substantive, measurable, and specific directions that a strategic plan must address. Some of these KPIs are outside mandates, while others are internal management objectives or goals articulated by divisions or departments. The three types of KPIs form the "givens," or the foundation of the strategic plan. They take account of the various pulls on the institution, and outline more specific ways to address multiple needs and goals. Finally, they provide benchmarks against which institutions can measure the success of their planning efforts.
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