European higher education does not have a uniform record of sustained planning. The Bologna Declaration, originally signed by 29 countries (and now 45), calls for major reforms to higher education throughout the continent. The European higher education community is diverse and heterogeneous. This article clarifies these myriad cultures in the context of developing a unified strategic planning process. Positions will be grounded in scholarship generated over a period of years at the Center for Research in Higher Education Policies and elsewhere. The relationship between U.S. planning models and European reality are examined.
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